What is ultraviolet radiation (UV)?
The electromagnetic spectrum ranges from cosmic rays at one end, to radio waves at the other end. The ultraviolet (UV) region of the electromagnetic spectrum is situated between visible light and x-
Where does UV radiation come from and what is it used for?
In addition to sunlight, UV radiation can be emitted from a variety of sources such as light emitting diodes (LED s), lasers, electric arcs (especially as in arc welding), xenon bulbs, halogen bulbs, excimer bulbs, and mercury vapor lamps/tubes of low, medium and high pressures. UV C radiation is used extensively for sterilization, purifying, and deodorizing applications in food, air, water, and general surface sterilization processes because the UV C radiation not only deactivates micro-
Are Ultraviolet lamps dangerous?
Yes, there are several SAFETY CONCERNS about UV lamp fixtures to be considered when using the any UV lamp fixture. You must make sure that it is NEVER pointed at anyone including pets. A "sunburn" can occur to eyes or skin.
You should ALWAYS wear UV blocking safety glasses when looking at, or when collecting fluorescent minerals. We carry very inexpensive yet effective UV blocking glasses. (You can but them directly from harbor freight for $2.99). You can check to see that your glasses do block the UV, by putting the glasses close to a fluorescent rock and pointing the UV lamp toward the rock. The portion of the rock directly below the glasses will remain dark while the rest of the rock fluoresces. It is also a good idea to cover skin that is exposed to the UV and always wear sun block even under clothing as some fabrics can be penetrated by UV much like sun exposure.
For use in display cases, I use UV blocking Plexiglas or UV blocking Lexan to make the "window" to be able to look in the display case while at the same time protecting people from the UV. You should always have a UV blocking transparent material for all cases.
How does UV radiation create a sun tan?
(Excerpted from US Patent 4967090) Skin pigmentation and thickening of the upper layer of the skin called the corneum are the body's natural protective reactions to exposure to & .ultraviolet energy produced by the sun; these reactions are the skin's defense against further assault. Skin pigmentation, or tanning, is the result of a complex biological process, and to understand it, one most understand the skin's response to different wavelengths of ultraviolet radiation.
Deep down in the skin are special cells called melanocytes. Once these are stimulated with ultraviolet light, they will utilize substances which they have stored up to produce the pigment melanin. Because these substances only absorb & & .(UV B) ultraviolet light, these UV B rays must be present in order to achieve melanin production. Longer wavelength ultraviolet (UV A) can also formulate melanin but only when there exists enough sensitizing material in the skin to bring about a UV B-
In the preliminary stages of melanin production, very little protection is offered to the skin. In order to render the pigmentation process effective, the melanin granules must darken (oxidize). This requires a higher dosage of longer wave UV A. The dosage of UV A must be sufficiently high in order to provide enough energy to initiate the oxidation process. It must be remembered that UV A rays are not as energetic as UV B rays. Long-
Thus, UV B serves to synthesize the pigment granules while UV A ensure their oxidation. Together they form a light protection mechanism. UV B is also essential in developing the skin callosity in the horny layer or corneum. This light-
Most tanning lamps produce a spectrum of ultraviolet light which is similar to that of the sun. Most lamps provide the small amount of UV B necessary to initiate the tanning process while at the same time, providing the UVA needed to darken the pigment (melanin). Ultraviolet tanning lamps and tanning equipment used in the United States must comply with very specific regulations which are enforced by an agency of the Food and Drug Administration. These regulations restrict certain ultraviolet lamp characteristics and require extensive labeling of lamps and suntan equipment. The U.S. FDA defines UV A as the region of 320 nanometers (nm)-
In the design of sun-
Because of the factors mentioned above it is necessary in a commercial indoor tanning application or in the consumer tanning products marketplace to offer sunlamp products which are appropriate to the range of "tannable" skin types and skin conditions. This means that sunlamp product manufacturers, to be fully competitive, must offer products which produce the radiative characteristics necessary for safe and effective tanning of a range of skin types and conditions.
To this end many manufacturers offer a variety of ultraviolet sources which when used in conjunction with their tanning equipment give the desired ranges of UV A and UV B appropriate for the person(s) undergoing the tanning process. To cover the range of ultraviolet lamps to meet the needs of the market, equipment manufacturers and distributors generally make available three separate groups of lamps having the following characteristics:
1. Lamps with a relatively low proportion of UV B radiation approximately 1% UV B/UV A and lower,
2. Lamps with an intermediate proportion of UV B; approximately 1.0-
3. Lamps with a relatively high proportion of UV B; 3% and above, usually to 5% maximum.
In all cases, UV A is defined [by the US FDA] as the region of 320 nm -
How does a sun-
The tubes/lamps/bulbs used for rock collecting usually have a relatively narrow band of UV emission and they do not generally use blends of phosphors as the sun tanning lamps do.
|9 watt lamp models|
|18 Watt lamps|
|36 Watt Lamps|
|60 Watt Lamps|
|95 Watt lamps|
|UV B Mid Wave|
|Won't light up|
|Why are they called fluorescent lamps?|
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|How does UV C disable micro-organisms?|